Latin America, which is already plagued by industrial timber plantations, is a hotspot for GE trees research and development. Brazil, in particular is a focus for development of GE eucalyptus and pine trees. In Chile, timber plantations have been causing social conflicts, ecological devastation and massive wildfires. They were vastly expanded throughout the countryside under the rule of the brutal dictator Augusto Pinochet. Chile is also becoming a focus for GE tree development.